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What Where How and When

Let’s learn about the chapter from NCERT History Class 6 ‘ What Where How and When ‘. Click on the below topic to learn each topic in detail.

What is History?

  1. Chronological Account:

    History is like a timeline that tells us about events in the order they happened.

  2. Record of Past Events:

    It serves as a record of what happened in the past, helping us understand how things unfolded.

  3. Understanding the Past:

    By studying history, we gain insights into the lives and actions of people who came before us.

  4. Learning from the Past:

    It provides lessons from past experiences, helping us make informed decisions in the present and future.

What are the reasons for learning history?

  1. Understanding Our Past:

    • History teaches us about what happened in the past.
    • It helps us know where we came from and how things have changed over time.
  2. Insight into Ancient Culture and Lifestyle:

    • Studying history gives us a peek into how people in ancient times lived, what they believed in, and their way of life.
    • It helps us appreciate our cultural roots and traditions.
  3. Solving Present-Day Problems:

    • By learning from historical events, we can make better decisions in the present.
    • History provides insights into the consequences of actions, helping us navigate challenges in the world today.

Periods in History

  1. Chronological Sequence:

    Historians arrange events in the order they happened for a clearer understanding.

  2. Year Zero:

    The birth of Jesus Christ is considered the starting point, marked as year zero.

  3. Before Christ (BC):

    Any event that occurred before the birth of Jesus is referred to as Before Christ (BC).

  4. Anno Domini (AD):

    Events that happened after the birth of Jesus are labeled as Anno Domini (AD).

  5. Timeline Stages:

    The timeline of history is divided into three stages for organization – prehistory, protohistory, and history.

In which locations did people reside?

  1. River Valleys:

    People preferred living near river valleys because rivers supplied water for all their needs.

  2. Sulaiman and Kirtar Hills:

    Evidence of ancient life has been discovered near Sulaiman and Kirtar hills in the northwest.

  3. Ganga River:

    Traces of life were also found along the Ganga River. About 2500 years ago, regions like Magadha, Kashi, Vajji, and others, known as Mahajanpadas, thrived in this area.

  4. Himalayan Mountains:

    The Himalayan mountains served as a natural barrier between India and Central Asia for a very long time.

From where did the name India originate?

  1. Our country is known by two names – India and Bharat.
  2. The name Bharat was used by people in North India a long time ago, as mentioned in the Sanskrit composition Rigveda.
  3. The word “Indus,” which is part of the name India, comes from the river Indus, known as Sindhu in Sanskrit.

How do we gain knowledge about what happened in the past?

  1. Archaeological and Literary Sources:

    • Archaeologists and historians use two main sources to understand the past.
  2. Archaeology:

    • Archaeology is the study of human history and prehistory by digging up and examining old sites.
  3. Archaeological Tools:

    • Archaeologists use different things like monuments, artifacts, inscriptions, and coins to learn about the past.
  4. Literary Sources:

    • Handwritten or any other written records of the past are called literary sources.
  5. Types of Literary Sources:

    • Literary sources can be divided into two types: religious literature and secular literature.

Why is it important to study historical sources?

  1. Two Groups of Historians:

    • History is studied by two kinds of people: archaeologists and historians.
    • Archaeologists and historians work together to learn about the past.
  2. Archaeologists and Their Studies:

    • Archaeologists focus on studying things that were left behind, like old buildings made of stones, bricks, paintings, and sculptures.
    • They dig up ancient sites to find clues about how people lived in the past.
  3. Historians and Their Work:

    • Historians are a different group of people who also study history.
    • Instead of physical things, historians use information found in writings, inscriptions, seals, and scripts to understand and tell the stories of the past.

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